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This website identifies Covid-19 misinformation ‘super-spreaders’

By Jann Bellamy

NewsGuard, a company that evaluates and rates news and information websites, recently analyzed Facebook Pages and Twitter accounts to identify what it calls “super-spreaders” of COVID-19 misinformation, Rush Limbaugh, Dr. Joseph Mercola, and the National Vaccine Information Center among them. (There are separate lists of Facebook and Twitter super-spreaders in Europe.)

To qualify as a super-spreader, a Facebook Page or Twitter account must have published or shared “clearly and egregiously false content about the virus”, have more than 100,000 page “likes” or followers, respectively, and have been active on the date NewsGuard published its data — that is, neither Facebook nor Twitter had acted as of that date to take down the misinformation.

NewsGuard describes this as an ongoing project, one among several designed to out COVID-19 misinformation, and notes that the listed Pages and accounts may not be the most frequent offenders or have the largest audiences – they simply met the criteria for this particular data set. NewsGuard’s larger message, it seems, is that, despite promises by Facebook and Twitter to effectively police their products for COVID-19 misinformation, whatever they are doing isn’t working, a point we’ll return to in a moment.

But first, the lists. Among the 31 Facebook super-spreaders, whose combined accounts reach over 21 million followers, the top spot goes to Global Informers (which I’d never heard of) with almost 5 million “likes”. Described as an “English-language page for a business with an address in Turkey and managed from Pakistan”, created in 2017, Global Informers posted a link to PressTV, an Iranian propaganda outlet, with the false claim that the novel coronavirus was created in a lab as a bioweapon, and to RT, the Russian propaganda outlet, claiming, without substantiation, that the U.S. military started the pandemic.

The coronavirus is the first true social-media “infodemic”

(In this post, I will not provide a link to the misinformation itself, although you can find it on the NewsGuard website.)

Coming in at #2 is Rush Limbaugh (over 2.3 million Facebook Page “likes”), upon whom Donald Trump recently bestowed the Presidential Medal of Freedom, cited for his false claims that the novel coronavirus was created in a lab as a bioweapon and that it is similar to the common cold. Also speaking from the far right of the political spectrum, The Gateway Pundit (631,000 likes, but scoring 0 out of 100 on NewGuard’s rating scale) posted false claims that the drug hydroxychloroquine “has a 100% success rate in treating COVID-19.”

Not surprisingly, super-spreaders include websites shilling for unproven COVID-19 cure-alls we’ve covered here on SBM, like colloidal silver, Vitamin C, and the aforementioned hydroxychloroquine, as well promoting debunked claims that the virus is linked to 5-G technology and Bill Gates.

Two Facebook Pages affiliated with Ty Bollinger (whose promotion of cancer quackery has been called out in SBM posts), The Truth About Cancer (sadly, with almost 1.2 million “likes”) and Cancer Truth, are cited for their false claims that the virus was created in a lab as a bioweapon and that it is connected to 5G technology. NewsGuard’s evaluation of Bollinger’s The Truth About Cancer website correctly describes it as one that “has repeatedly promoted unproven and potentially dangerous cancer treatments.”

The National Vaccine Information Center, accurately described as a publisher of “articles with false and unsubstantiated claims about vaccination”, is cited for its Facebook Page touting Vitamin C as prophylactic against COVID-19.

Twitter trust issues
NewsGuard identified 10 Twitter super-spreaders, who reach a combined following of over 3 million. The list again begins with someone I’ve never heard of: Femi Fani-Kayode, who takes the number 1 spot with almost a million Twitter followers. He’s identified as a former Nigerian politician (the Nigerian Prince, perhaps?) “who has repeatedly shared misinformation about vaccines and 5G technology”, including claims linking the latter to the pandemic.

Another unknown to me, David Icke, with over 310,000 followers, is a former British football player, “who has repeatedly promoted conspiracy theories, including the idea that the world is under the control of shape-shifting aliens”. He tweeted both that the coronavirus does not exist and, in what would seem to be a mutually-exclusive proposition, that 5G technology is connected to its spread.

Into this illustrious group who should fall but Dr. Joseph Mercola, “an osteopathic physician and alternative medicine advocate . . . who has published false claims about standard medical practices such as vaccinations”. (Not only that, he actually funds the anti-vaccination movement.) Mercola has made frequent appearances on SBM, going back at least to 2009, with the eponymous post 9 Reasons to Completely Ignore Joseph Mercola, all the way up to a few days ago, with a mention in a David Gorski post on COVID-19 and conspiracy theories.

Mercola, who has had frequent run-ins with regulatory authorities, made the Twitter super-spreaders list by “suggesting that high heat, including from a sauna or steam bath, can treat the coronavirus” and “promoting unproven herbal remedies for COVID-19” to his almost 300,000 followers.

NewsGuard uses these super-spreader lists as a cudgel to beat Facebook and Twitter over the head for not doing enough to remove this sort of misinformation from social media, a legitimate criticism, along with a bit of self-promotion.

Despite Facebook’s announced efforts to stop the spread of this type of misinformation, these pages continue to be allowed to use Facebook to publish blatant misinformation about COVID-19 — seemingly in violation of the platform’s content policies. In some cases . . . we found evidence of what appears to be “coordinated inauthentic behavior“, which violates Facebook’s policies. We also found that in a majority of the false posts we reviewed, Facebook did not provide any warning, fact-checking language, or links to more credible sources — despite the platform’s recent promises to do so. Of the posts we have identied so far publishing COVID-19 misinformation, 63% did not have any warning or fact-check link attached to the post . . .Whether or not a fact check was shown appeared to be random. Even for the posts that did have fact-checker warnings, those warnings would only have appeared after the hoax had been published. That lapse is exacerbated by Facebook’s policy of not providing information to its users that Facebook Pages like these have been known to publish misinformation or hoaxes in the past. This prior bad conduct is especially true of purveyors of COVID-19 hoaxes . . .

NewsGuard aims similar criticisms at Twitter.

On the other hand,

NewsGuard has found that 80% of the 174 COVID-19 misinformation sites we have now identified had already been rated Red by NewsGuard for publishing misinformation in the past.

In other words, don’t trust Facebook or Twitter; check it out on NewsGuard.

“Rated Red” is a reference to NewsGuard’s rating system, which “employs a team of trained journalists and experienced editors to review and rate news and information websites based on nine journalistic criteria” assessing credibility and transparency and assigning each a red or green rating indicating its credibility. When NewsGuard is downloaded, these red and green (also, yellow for satire and grey for not rated) icons appear next to news links on search engines and social media feeds. Hovering over the icon will give you some information on the rating, while clicking on the rating will take you to a “Nutrition Label” for a more complete assessment of the site.

Altogether, NewsGuard has issued detailed ratings of more than 4,000 websites which it claims to account for 95% of online engagement with the news. Specific to the pandemic, the company, in addition to its super-spreader lists, debunks the most popular COVID-19 myths, such as

Bill Gates plans to use COVID-19 to implement a mandatory vaccine program with microchips to surveil people.

It also created a Coronavirus Misinformation Tracking Center, including a list of websites known to be posting false coronavirus information. The list includes 56 domains of the Network as well as, whose “appalling legacy” Harriet Hall discussed, and “natural health expert” Sayer Ji’s

I downloaded NewsGuard (normally $2.95/month, but available free until July 1 “with no strings attached”), mainly because I wanted to support its efforts to combat misinformation on the internet, especially medical misinformation. According to a 2019 STAT News article written by a former health news reporter and now NewsGuard analyst,

Americans consume an unhealthy diet of health misinformation. Of the sites analyzed by NewsGuard, 11% provide misinformation about health; in other words, more than 1 in 10 news websites accessed by Americans includes bad information about health.

Of all the sites with red ratings, 37% publish false or unfounded health claims.

These sites accounted for more than 49 million engagements (shares, likes, comments, etc.) on social media in the past 90 days — more than major news websites such as NPR, Business Insider, or Forbes. In a recent search on Facebook for “vaccines and CDC,” several of the top-page results were from NewsGuard red-rated websites.

NewsGuard has come in handy when replying to emails from certain friends of the family who are spreading COVID-19 nonsense or just dubious political “news” in general. Even if you don’t subscribe, nosing around the website is interesting and, if you wish, you can suggest a site for review. I’m certainly going to.
Credit: Science-Based Medicine

34 thoughts on “This website identifies Covid-19 misinformation ‘super-spreaders’

  1. Susan, your husband posted a link to this add-on on another thread and I have installed it on both of my browsers. It is a true time saver that provides valuable information. Thank you both very much for posting it.

    I have read your offerings for a long time and love how in depth your articles are. I chuckle a bit at the brevity of your husband’s offering and wonder if this ever causes problems at home. You are both pretty cool.

    1. Hi – Donald – As you can see, typically the Tuesday “Health News You Can Use” is shared from credible sources, for example, today’s column is written by Jann Bellamy, and sourced from Science-Based Medicine. I link to the source always, at the bottom of the page. On Fridays you’ll find my original columns, and I hope you agree that I also obtain my info from only credible sources, which I always link to at the end of the article, and throughout the articles too. Thanks for reading and for sharing. I appreciate it. Susan

  2. Uninformed and stupid article.

    Purbright – Rothschild-sponsor-Gates-Patent-COV19 – 2015.

    Nobody trusts Gates in USA !
    His vaccines have maimed , sterilized , killed millions !
    Like his Dad the creep is a Eugenesist .


    So much more I could go into , be wasting my time, here. Susan you are so out of touch with what truly is going on in USA and China.
    Look up Professor Liebber of Harvard.

    Busted and tied to Wuhan Labs.
    20 000 000 killed there from a 5 G explosion ! Not in MSM crap stations. USA poll 92 % do not believe Fox Cnn Msnbc
    Virus IS the cover – story !!

    My news source comes from Intel Officers… Robert Steele Stew Webb , friends and more FIGHTING THE FIGHT.
    Rest Is B.S.

    1. “His vaccines have maimed , sterilized , killed millions !”
      unproven nonsense

      “20 000 000 killed there from a 5 G explosion”
      and you are soo deep in the rabbit hole

      and anti-vaxxers, flat earth and LIZZARD PEOPLE!

      get a grip, some meds and relax

      1. No use talking to Ann. She has to be from an alternate universe. Or maybe a Lizard person herself? Russian or Chinese bot made to strew pure bunk?

    2. Very interesting takeway. I’d love to know the sources you’re citing for your information. Please provide them.

  3. well lets see —- chlorine dioxide —-an ECUADORIAN study successfully cured 100 people using this for 4 days -via IV– published.

    Dr Fauci himself published an article in 2005 in a well known publication extolling the virtues of HCQ back in 2005 for coronaviruses like sars/mers etc. Guess he forgot —happens when the money flow is going to drop:

    HCQ has been used for over 60 years successfully for many things and since it only cost 30 cents per pill, has worked successfully around the world for hundreds of thousands of people and blows up the experimental vax drive at hundreds of dollars a pop that has yet to exist, it has to be demonized. there are hundreds of doctors and nursing homes around the world that have used HCQ successfully for this CV thing.

    Now — we have definitely advanced — we now inject mercury instead —- in multi dose flu shots among many other things. We also get to breath it from belching coal plants. we inject polysorbate 80 which is a detergent which crosses the blood brain barrier and brings aluminum and mercury and kinds of other things along with it from biologicals. we coat many pills with fluoride which is not good for you last time i checked.. sorry if that is too much science for you all.

    before you buy into this propaganda/hit piece — remember to follow the money. big pharma says so, the demonized others all have documented research or have seen the truth with their own eyes — fraudulent diagnoses on their loved ones death certificates or brain damaged children, etc etc etc.

    The wholistic, research based people are gaining ground so big pharma is pouring out the crap. here is a fun one to think about. — i expect the big pharma people will be first in line.

    Or perhaps add the following to your toxic load:

    1. Kit, what you wrote is simply not true. The 2005 article you refer to is about chloroquine, which is a different drug than hydroxychloroquine. (The conspiracy “article” appeared in a holy roller Christian fundamentalist hate group publication).

      You should be more careful making such statements, they are potentially harmful.

      1. Juan, for your information, both Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have a similar basic structure except for the hydroxy group. Why were they approved by the FDA years ago and have never been recalled?

  4. NewsGuard: I tried to find information on NewsGuard and it looks like MicroSoft has some connection.

    The lead investor, among a group
    of 18 investors [could not locate all these investors are], is Publicis
    Groupe, one of the world’s leading ad agency holding companies.
    “Publicis Groupe’s transformation centered around “The Power of One”
    [another name for New World Order] has
    taken us from being a holding company to a platform – transforming both
    our business model and the way clients can benefit from all our Groupe
    has to offer.”
    this is misrepresentation of people that have done their research which
    clearly this writer has not done. Also, what the author of this
    article chose to write, out of context, is clearly prejudice. This
    person has probably never read books, articles, viewed videos, etc. by
    some of these people and if she/he had, she/he would know that putting all
    mentioned in the same category is by someone who has not done their
    research on these individuals and is a propaganda mouth-piece.

  5. About the Wuhan biolab’s involvement in the development of COVID-19, I don’t see the sense in assuming it was zero. That’s just ideology.

    1. A US Court told a biolab that the c virus was too dangerous, and to stop studying it. Fauci took it and millions of US taxpayer $s to where? to the Wuhan lab. Here is info from a lawyer who researched it, who also gives a template for US citizens to write to state and fed attorney generals, including what laws were violated and the legalese.
      pdf link…/…/04/BotW_Notes_04272020.pdf
      you tube
      If video is taken down, search for ‘David Martin World’;

      1. How about citing actual authenticated articles and not youtube videos that anyone can cut together and put up?

        1. IF you really were interested in facts you would watch the video instead of ridiculing it without viewing it. There is a huge divide that is evident in these comments of those who are willing to investigate various viewpoints for themselves, and those who totally buy the main stream narrative. Sad.

  6. NewsGuard … we need a nanny to tell us what to believe is true? Do you really want Google, Facebook, Youtube and NewsGuard filtering what you read and hear, deciding for you? Freedom of expression, freedom of speech and a free press is what freedom (western democracy) is all about. We are perfectly capable of coming to our own conclusions on medical issues, or any issues. To actually subscribe to and pay for censorship is truly hard to understand. Where does it all end? Do you want to live in a society like CCP China? NewsGaurd is a sad statement on our growing laziness to think for ourselves and exercise critical thinking skills. If you want such a “service” you should be free to employ it but I for one reject the premise that we need it, or should even want it.

    1. Exactly, perfectly correct statement.
      Frank, no doubt you realize that your valid points are not ‘the’ point. The primary point that really matters is control of information. If full control of info exposure is impossible to obtain or maintain in this moment, the secondary point is to obtain and control the ability (i.e. commandeer the apparent ‘authority’) to stamp any uncontrollable information as false, misleading, unsupported, etc. This secondary point is what we are talking about here with the article above. And it’s what is in play with the covid-19 event.
      Information, and the ability to be the sole judge of whether it is true or not is a very powerful lever of control of people and their actions.
      Imagine you are the one who is the ‘sole authority’? Imagine only you have control of the ability to stamp all info as true or not?
      After a short while of going through the motions of appearing to publicly back up your
      determinations (i.e. funding the creation of orgs such as NewsGuard), soon you’ll just start forcefully declaring info as being worthy of being seen, or not. You are now the Master of the Ministry of Truth.
      That’s what’s coming. I can virtually guarantee it. It’s easy for anyone to see the trend, if one is not afraid to look. In the health care and dietary realms, Susan and Jann will be all for it. Freedom of choice and the liberty to choose are of low priority to them, and millions of other people as well.
      Unapproved creative thought itself will become suspect; discouraged. Unapproved thought is dangerous, uncontrollable and unhealthy, you see. All must subsume their own minds to approved thoughts. All are encouraged to use certain words, and shamed for using others. Language itself increasingly becomes controlled, approved. Vetted for us by NewsGuard, Peer Review, The Ministry of Truth. It’s for the health of the children. Or the elderly. Or the poor families. Or the immuno-compromised. Or those with comorbidities. Or whatever is trendy at the moment.
      To these people, control of information, thought and action is far more important than the animated risk-taking of free thinking and free acting mature adults.

    2. “We are perfectly capable of coming to our own conclusions on medical issues” No we’re not. That’s the point, science doesn’t care about your opinion and it is a labored process of observation and elimination.

      1. Science, in its pure, unfettered state, is a motivation of noble, altruistic intent. There is an innocent childlike curiosity that drives it. In that regard, it is wonderful.
        Science (esp health science), in its currently tainted, polluted, constrained, money motivated and politically motivated state of affairs, has long lost its noble altitude.

        More to Frank’s point, which you do not address, every one of us is most assuredly capable of coming to our own conclusions. Our conclusions, and our subsequent choices may be utterly untenable, self-destructive and flat-out wrong, but they are our choices nonetheless. That’s how one learns and matures. Our next conclusion may very well be to defer to the conclusions of others – experts, elders, whomever – and then choose to follow their advice. In which case the outcome may be better… or it may be worse. In either case, we learn. We mature.
        You Jeana, along with Jenn and Susan, seem to have a different set of priorities than I. You apparently feel it is better and more righteous to force others to conform their conclusions, and their choices, to those who you consider to be authority.
        So, why would you want to do that? What is your motivation for your implied coercion?

      2. Science is indeed a constantly evolving effort to prove a hypothesis wrong.

        You got that part right.

        But the CHL FactCheck Brigade must blow the whistle on your postulate that our ability to come to our own conclusions about medical issues — or any other issues for that matter — has the slightest correlation with scientific rectitude.

        For that grievous error, the CHL FCB hereby awards you its premier faceplant prize: 5 raspberries.

      3. If I were to follow the advice of established medicine I might not be typing these words. Main stream medicine treats symptoms with pharma. I investigated alternative options because approved methods were missing the root cause. I found a holistic doctor who discovered the root cause of my issues. This doctor uses vitamins and supplements and unconventional methods that have cured me. I suspect NewsGuard would have flagged her treatment protocols, which rely on supplements, herbs, and diet changes as out of the main stream, suspect, quackery, and therefore fake news. I am indeed capable of understanding a variety of information. As an engineer I have a training for unbiased observation and study. What I object to is any government or media platform filtering information and censoring opinion. Yes, we are all capable of free thinking if we want to, and should at least have the right to do so. Thank you.

        1. WOW Frank you actually used a quack, lunatic fringe doctor and were cured!! Welcome to the world of medical doctors like myself.

      4. Jeana, you are misinformed. The so called scientific articles that come from medical research were so tainted that the editor of the new England Journal of Medicine resigned her position. Does that tell you anything

  7. As Mark Twain reportedly said: If you don’t read a newspaper every day, you are uninformed. If you do read one every day, you are misinformed.
    Misinformation in this case is defined as information not approved by the authorities, which have themselves contradicted themselves over and over again. If you are comfortable just letting the “authorities” declare the “truth”, then follow along. But for those who are able to think and analyze for themselves, the truth is not so easily defined as “just follow whatever the FDA, WHO and CDC say, and avoid reading any non-approved sources.”
    Are these alternative sources always right? Of course not, but their error rates are not likely to exceed those of the approved sources. For any treatment or precaution, I am going to analyze their recommendations, weigh them against my previous experience and learning, and if needed, cautiously try those that are least likely to cause harm and that appear to have good prospects for helping.
    I have learned by personal experience that there is much of so-called alternative medicine which is beneficial, along with that which is unhelpful or flat-out wrong. But the same is true of conventional medicine.
    I am less fearful of people who run sites that post non-approved treatments than I am of those who are determined to suppress any opinions that do not agree with their own. In a marketplace of ideas we are bound to find some that are wrong or stupid, but it should be the responsibility of each individual to analyze for him/herself what makes sense rather than to defer to the supposed authorities. The authorities also have agendas besides just doing what’s best for humanity, not to mention mistakes and associations that they would prefer to keep hidden.

    1. The authorities also have agendas besides just doing what’s best for
      humanity, not to mention mistakes and associations that they would
      prefer to keep hidden.

      Gordon, it becomes very interesting when you look more deeply at the concept of authority, esp the almost universally held belief in govt authority. Anyone who is in a position of assumed superior moral authority over everyone else will become corrupt to the core, eventually. Extremely rare is the man or woman who will not compromise their highest ethics, no matter what.

      Imagine yourself in such a position where nearly everyone else sincerely believes that you, as a top (or bottom) agent of govt authority, have the moral legitimacy and moral right to tell everyone else what to do, and, further, that the gun-wielding enforcers standing behind you sincerely believe it as well. Whatever you say must be obeyed by everyone else. After all, it’s ‘the law.’ Because you said so. The disobedient will be thrown in a cage or literally murdered.
      What’s that setup going to do to your mind, or the mind of any ‘govt authority’? What would it do to you, over time? Imagine you command that everyone else do as you say, because you have ‘the best intention for humanity’ in your mind. And suppose a good number of people don’t agree with you? Whatcha gonna do? Simply allow the disobedient to do as they please? Suppose that wrecks you plans, your ‘best for humanity’ intentions? Are you just gonna let it slide?
      Maybe once or twice you’ll let it pass, giving the matter some serious reflection concerning your true intentions, your true motivations, your willingness to allow others to have their own choices.
      But after a few rounds of having your dreams of elevated humanity bashed by others who disagree, you, like every human being put in similar circumstances, will begin getting a little belligerent. You’ll start demanding that people do as you say, that they comply with your demands/commands. “It’s for the Good of Humanity! It’s the Rule of Law, not men! (though you are just a man, and you made up the law).
      Soon enough, the disobedient really start pissing you off. This cannot stand! You become repressive, dictatorial, even murderous in your zeal to see through your ‘good for humanity’ quest. “Why can’t everyone else see that I know what’s best for them? Why are they making it so difficult for me?”

      Sure, what I am saying sounds like a statement of the obvious… and that our treasured ‘democracy’ (or ‘republic’, or whatever you want to call it) will surely set straight any wayward actions of the belligerent govt authority. But by their very nature, governments (i.e. self-assumed superior moral authority), by being instituted in ANY fashion, instantly sets up this immoral and illegitimate hierarchy. Govt authority is presumed to be allowed to do immoral things that every other normal person is not allowed to do. This inherent radical imbalance of power carries on until those wielding it have so abused it that righteous people can stand it no longer. Then comes the war, the revolution that merely repeats the cycle… because people keep on believing in the legitimacy of so-called ‘govt authority.’

  8. Biased against anyone against the CNN govt narrative!? Just a tad? do your own thinking, find the do0ctors who can research and have done the Real science…Then think for yourself!

  9. I love all the comments. In Nazi Germany they had the Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda to make sure people would not read any “misinformation ” ie Not state approved . We are losing our right to free speech. Free speech means people can say what they want to and not be silenced. I may not agree with Rush Limbaugh, or other “not officially approved “sources, but I believe with all my heart that people have a right to speak their views and opinions . Also I HAVE A RIGHT TO HEAR WHAT THEY SAY AND READ THEIR OPINIONS. I do not want a Ministry of Truth (from Orwell’s novel) 1984) deciding what I am to think by controlling what I am to hear or read. Check out Robert Kennedy’s children’ and check out all the sites that NEWSGUARD says we should not read. The truth does not come from the Pharmaceutical companies or the Government, it comes from people who are willing to take risks to get the truth out. “In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act” George Orwell

    1. I agree, they had a great idea about a lot of things. Looks like the president is moving back in that direction.

  10. Hi John here. First off I would hope that most people understand that in the history of vaccines their has never been a real vaccine against the Flu viruses. Why because the virus morphs rapidly and us ever changing. Now what is exactly in these annual vacations I do nit know fir sure. I do know that they have MERCURY in them as a preservative ¡ Sorry to say but this is documented information. You do realize Mercury is extremely toxic. So when their is evidence that Bill Gates has a patent on Covud-19 #069606 which was applied and approved by the FDA in 2019. So you tell me what is your gut feeling. As I have never taken a flu vaccine ever and at age 68 I am healthy. I take no medications at all. Previously when in business selling pensions to doctors they all told mm e in confidence “James never take any vaccines unless you are in the hospital for an emergency”. More than 175 doctors all said the same thing. Personally I do not believe that they will ever be able to have a vaccine. Do the research yourself. Do not believe me. Hope you all are well.

  11. It is indeed refreshing to see that there are freethinking Gringo persons in Ecuador who will evaluate what they read and hear without being told they are “quacks” or “lunatic fringe” persons. If you are narrow minded and feel yours is the only way. please keep that content to your selves!! I heartily congratulate the positive posters who promote free speech. Who gives newsguard the authority to determine what is valid or not?

  12. “Ministry Of Truth” indeed! Top ‘players’ in NewsGuard include Tom Ridge (adviser/investor (Mr. Homeland Security!)), Gen. Michael Hayden (adviser (CIA/NSA!)) and, Jimmy Wales (founder of the ever-so accurate Wikipedia) to name three. These individuals certainly do not elicit much confidence in unbiased ‘ratings’ by the site. Talk about a coterie of neoliberal propagandists!

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